The principles woven throughout Primary Math are drawn from research and global best practices on the most effective instruction for learning mathematics.

**These principles include:**

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### The Concrete – Pictorial – Abstract Approach:

Students engage with mathematical concepts by first handling physical objects, then representing mathematical ideas using diagrams, and finally using abstract representations. Through the use of concrete materials and visual representations, students are able to see and make sense of the math and the abstract representations.

### Visual Models including Bar Models

Visual models such as number bonds, bar models and fraction models are hallmarks of Primary Mathematics. These models help students visualize and understand abstract math concepts.

### Problem Solving

Heuristics introduced at each grade level equip students with strategies to solve increasingly complex problems. Students apply these strategies to solve real-world problems through a consistent problem-solving process.

### Mathematical and Perceptual Variation

Mathematical variation presents opportunities for students to experience the same math concept through various applications. Perceptual variation showcases a mathematical concept using different representations. Variation deepens understanding as students apply the concepts in different ways.

### Learning Progression

Math is learned incrementally, with one concept building on the next. More depth is added, linking new concepts to the learning that has already been mastered. Learning math this way leads to deeper conceptual understanding.